Discuss job analysis, job description, and job specification.
Job analysis is an assessment that defines jobs and the behaviors necessary to perform them. Information for a job analysis can be gathered through the following methods: directly observing or filming individuals on the job, interviewing employees individually or in a group, having employees complete a structured questionnaire, having job “experts” identify a job’s specific characteristics, and having employees record their daily activities in a diary or notebook. With information from the job analysis, managers develop or revise job descriptions and job specifications.
A job description is a written statement of what a jobholder does, how it is done, and why it is done. It typically describes job content, environment, and conditions of employment.
A job specification states the minimum qualifications that a person must possess to perform a given job successfully. It identifies the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to do the job effectively. Both the job description and specification are important documents when managers begin recruiting and selecting.
Source: Management, 11e (Robbins/Coulter)