Explain feedforward, concurrent, and feedback controls and provide an example for each one.
Feedforward control is the most desirable type of control—feedforward control—prevents anticipated problems since it takes place before the actual activity. Example—at St. Joseph's Hospital in West Bend, Indiana, a new facility was designed with identical rooms, nonslip floors, and glass walls to reduce errors in patient care and to increase employee safety.
Concurrent control, as its name implies, takes place while an activity is in progress. When control occurs while the work is being performed, management can correct problems before they come too costly. Example—When managers use management by walking around, which is a term describing when a manager is out in the work area interacting directly with employees, they're using concurrent control.
Feedback control, the most popular type of control relies on feedback. In feedback control, the control takes place after the activity is done. Example—when the Denver Mint discovered flawed Wisconsin quarters, it was discovered with feedback control. The damage had already occurred even though the organization corrected the problem once it was discovered.
Source: Management, 11e (Robbins/Coulter)