List and discuss the five needs that are based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory.
Maslow was a psychologist who proposed that within every person is a hierarchy of five needs:
1. Physiological needs: A person's needs for food, drink, shelter, sex, and other physical requirements.
2. Safety needs: A person's needs for security and protection from physical and emotional harm, as well as assurance that physical needs will continue to be met.
3. Social needs: A person's needs for affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship.
4. Esteem needs: A person's needs for internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention.
5. Self-actualization needs: A person's needs for growth, achieving one's potential, and self-fulfillment; the drive to become what one is capable of becoming.
Maslow argued that each level in the needs hierarchy must be substantially satisfied before the next need becomes dominant. An individual moves up the needs hierarchy from one level to the next. In addition, Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower levels. Physiological and safety needs were considered lower-order needs; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs were considered higher-order needs. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied externally while higher-order needs are satisfied internally.
Managers using Maslow's hierarchy to motivate employees do things to satisfy employees' needs. But the theory also says that once a need is substantially satisfied, an individual is no longer motivated to satisfy that need. Therefore, to motivate someone, you need to understand what need level that person is on in the hierarchy and focus on satisfying needs at or above that level.
Source: Management, 11e (Robbins/Coulter)