Identify and describe the three types of control.
• Feedforward controls – also called preliminary controls, take place before a work activity begins. They ensure that objectives are clear, that proper directions are established, and that the right resources are available to accomplish them. Feedforward controls are preventive in nature. The goal is to solve problems before they occur by asking an important question: “What needs to be done before we begin?”
• Concurrent controls – also called steering controls, focus on what happens during the work process. They make sure things are being done according to plan. The goal of concurrent controls is to solve problems as they are occurring. The key question is “What can be done to improve things right now?”
• Feedback controls – also called postaction controls, take place after the work is completed. They focus on the quality of end results rather than on inputs and activities. Feedback controls are largely reactive; the goals are to solve problems after they occur and to prevent future ones. They ask the question “Now that we are finished, how well did we do?”
Source: Management, 11th Edition & 12th Edition- John R. Schermerhorn